Age Features of the Socialisation of Children with Intellectual Disability in Special Psychological and Pedagogical Research

Understanding the ontogenetic features of socialisation of children with intellectual disability is of great social significance. The purpose of the scientific article is to identify the age characteristics of socialisation of children with intellectual disability in special psychological and pedagogical research. In the course of the study, the following methods were used: analysis of general and special psychological and pedagogical literature; systematisation and generalisation of theoretical approaches to solving the problem of children with intellectual disabilities’ social development; definition of key concepts’ content; theoretical modelling to create a hypothetical model of socialisation of the child with intellectual disability at different ages. It was found that the socialisation of a personality with intellectual disability in preschool age was manifested in disorders of self-perception, decreased emotional sensitivity, ability to empathise, lack of understanding and adequate assessment of life situations, social skills’ disorders. Due to the existing behavioural disorders, younger students have a feeling of loneliness, lower social competence. The semantic sphere of adolescents with intellectual disability is manifested in the delayed development of semantic life orientations, low level of life satisfaction, unformed higher emotions, dominance of primitive interests, violations of self-control, dominance of low level of adaptation to the social environment. Senior students with intellectual disability have a distortion of self-awareness, which is manifested in undifferentiated and uncritical perceptions of adolescents about themselves, inadequate self-esteem. The established age features of children with intellectual disabilities’ social formation make it possible to work out a system of corrective influence on their social development taking into account the “structure of the disorder” based on the “bottom-up” correction principle