The principal approaches of study the concept of educational communication have been presented in the research. System analysis and activity-based approach have been used in the research. System analysis of theories of activities allowed to open a new subject of psychology - educational communication through the system - subject - object - subject. The content of the concept of educational communication has been disclosed. The activity approach gave the opportunity to clarify the structure of the communication process, its functions and properties: relationship features of educational dialogue and its kinds, methods of checking the accuracy of the display. The results of the study allowed to establish the functional structure of the educational communication which consists of the processes: reflection, understanding, argumentation. In the analysis of educational communication activities has been identified the following structural components: the subject of communication, needs, motives, action, task, product. The theoretical and methodological analysis of communication processes allowed to specify the structure, function and systemic nature of educational communication. The methods of identifying the productivity of educational interaction that is determined by the level of mastering by the teacher of complex abilities have been presented, and the contents of this complex have been revealed. The methods of generalization of the independent estimates allowed to identify the following abilities of teachers to educational communication: observation (research), pedagogical tact (humanistic), love for children, feeling children, sensory, abilities of suggestion, influence on pupils (suggestive), the ability to design activity of students (positive), a word to be able to express their thoughts (speech), the use of innovative teaching methods (didactic), the ability to amplify thoughts by facial expressions and pantomimicry (expressive), the organization of process of training and education (organizational), the ability to penetrate into the inner world of the student (perceptual), knowledge of students’ psychology (gnostic), the ability to establish relationships with people (communication), research, the ability to bring together different, distinct elements (synectics), the ability to help the birth of thoughts, feelings and images (maieutic). The results of independent evaluations show that the least-developed in the educational communication are suggestive and maieutic abilities. On the basis of obtained results, a promising direction for further research consider the working-out of special tools of intensive development of such abilities as: suggestive, synectic and maieutic.
Keywords: educational communication, systems analysis, activity approach, structure, function, ability to communicate academic, performance communication