Temperament as a psychological factor of musical performance

Abstract.

The article "Temperament as a psychological factor of musical performance" is devoted to the analysis of scientific frameworks of the display of temperament characteristics in musicians’ performances, from the point of view of interdisciplinary combination of psychological theory of temperament and practice of musical performance. Based on the scientific and theoretical research methods, temperament theories of personality are revealed (psychological theory of Carl Jung, I. Pavlov typological theory and structural theory of W. Merlin), in the context of which developed of such researchers as Kirnarska D., E. Yorkina, E. Fedorov, and I. Poluboryanyna developed the characteristics of musician temperament. The outlined scientific research forms the basis of modern domestic approach to identify the impact of individual-typological features of musicians’ on the effectiveness of their performances. More specifically, all Jungian types of temperament can be found among musicians (D. Kirnarska): extroverted (confident, open, able to show their best in front of a large audience, stable; becomes overexcited if performing on stage with insufficient preparation) and introverted (prone to fantasy and the constant search for new meanings, subjective interpretation). There are mental (typically stable, but sometimes overly academic performance), sensory (passionate, but occasionally emotionally unstable performance) and intuitive (subtle play, but sometimes the interpretation is not understood by the audience) introverts. According to the typology of Ivan Pavlov, E. Yorkina characterizes temperaments of musicians: choleric - explosive; sanguine – a fighter; phlegmatic - inert; melancholic - sensitive and so on. E. Fedorov finds that the following patterns can be observed during musical performances: choleric musicians are in a state of emotional arousal on the stage, resembling a "pre-fever", more often than other types; phlegmatic performers fall into a state of creative apathy more often. Musicians with a weak nervous system – melancholics – have the hardest time overcoming stage fright. Based on the description of psychological types of temperament by W. Merlin, I. Poluboyaryna proposed her own classification of temperament characteristics of young musicians, in which she distinguishes the strengths and weaknesses that significantly affect the creation of musical images during the concert. Most researchers argue that performance musicians of any type of temperament can succeed in their musical careers by forming their own individual style, which would compensate for the biological shortcomings of their temperament. Such styles are formed during professional training. Its effectiveness depends on the consideration of individual typological characteristics of personality, which implies the need of an individual approach to each artist, using a variety of educational methods and techniques. 

Keywords: temperament, the psychological factor, musical art