Approaches to the moral and ethical concepts formation in older preschoolers


The article "Approaches to the formation of moral and ethic concepts of senior preschoolers" presents a theoretical grounding of the organization of work with senior preschoolers to bring up them moral-ethik concepts. The aim of the article is to show the matter of moral education of senior preschoolers children and the stages of formation of moral-ethik concepts of the children at the classes of art-linguistic activity as well as in the prosses of various kinds of activity. Education of high moral qualities is an integral part of comprehensive development of a personality and the highest value of society, the personal spiritual wealth of each child. It shows the task of moral education of preschoolers including the formation of national consciousness and identity, the desire to live in harmony with nature, conscious discipline, duty and responsibility, respect for the law, to seniors and women. The method of work at formation of moral-ethik concepts of children at the classes of (fiction) literature is presented in stages. The first stage is a cognitive one which gets children acquainted with the matter of moral-ethik concepts; they learn to make the emotional and evaluative analysis of works of art. The second one, the stage of activity, offers the following objectives: to teach to find the relations between the behaviour of literary characters and actual behavour of people; to define the moral-ethik qualities of the characters of the works of art. The aim of the third one - perceptual - creative one is to form the skills of transmitting the acquired from the literary works knowledge concerning the moral-ethik concepts into thein personal linguistic activity. The fourth stage – the self - consciousness and ability to evaluate their own actions and those of others. Each stage gives the matter of work, methods and means of education. The formation of moral-ethik knowledge and behaviour also takes place in the process of other kinds of activity where there are situational communicative tasks with the moral and ethical content. Also article considers the living conditions and pedagogical sytuations that help the child to build coherent phrases,encourage to moral conteplations, promote logical developopment of thinking operations and the realization of ideological components of the educational function of training; develop thinking, flexibility of mind, concentration, create conditions of mental training. The practical orientation of these tasks is to make a child think about his behaviour and actions, offer the ways of solution of problematic situations and promote the formation of rules and standards of behaviour. According to the article moral-ethik values are formed in early childhood; theay are formed in the process of various kinds of activities throughout their lives. It is also noted that the problem is not resolved fully yet and further investigation is to be done to study the diagnostics of the formation of moral-ethik concepts of senior preschoolers and older preschoolers. 

Keywords: fiction literature, moral-ethik concepts, moral education (training), moral qualities, moral consciousness, moral values