Peculiar features of primary education development in European countries


The article is devoted to peculiar features of primary education in European countries. It has been proved that the criteria of primary education are: a systematic teaching of basic knowledge, skills and competencies; the typical age of students and study duration; the organization of training is carried out by one teacher. Educational activity at primary school is organized according to sections, projects or expanded branches of learning with application of integrated approach to learning. The peculiar features of primary education in the UK, Germany, Ireland, Czech Republic and Finland have been analysed. The main objectives of European primary education – are the creation of the most favourable conditions for the individual development of a child, taking into account the needs of society and the existing contradictions in it, to give basic knowledge and skills needed for the future development and integration to the society. The student, who completed the first training level according to educational programs, should have the skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing, reading and listening skills, which provide the ability to express thoughts to the audience, to listen, to perceive, to understand and respond to the others, to participate actively in group discussions and debates. Reading and writing skills include the ability to read texts of fiction and documentary literature, perceive and evaluate with the elements of critical analysis, ability to read for different purposes and audiences. Important criterions of the results in primary school preparation are crystallised skills of critical self-assessment of their own activity and identification of the ways improving educational achievements. Schoolchildren should be able to determine the aim of the study, to evaluate their own level of development and results of their achievements, to find problems that hinder their development and find ways to overcome them. The ability to overcome problematic situations includes the ability to find and understand the nature of the problems and find ways to overcome it. It has been determined that the study at primary education level in Ukraine is based on the principles of personal - oriented and competence approaches, priority objective is the motivation of schoolchildren and the formation of the ability to self-study. Modernization of the content of primary education should contribute to the educational process on the principles of humanization, integrity, continuity, common human and national values, and common cultural needs of younger students’ development.

Keywords: primary school, European countries, schoolchildren