The article points out that the formation and development of speech as the most significant condition of knowledge acquisition, logical thinking development and other aspects of psychic activity have acquired special importance due to the reforms of special preschool education in Ukraine. In relation to the increase in the number of children with speech defects in modern special pedagogics and psychology there is a statement focusing on the necessity of early revealing and overcoming speech defects. The child since the first days of life gets the first and most important lessons of social life through artistic words (lullaby, fairy-tale, proverb, fable etc.). According to the scholars’ points of view the defective speech has an effect on the formation of their intellectual, sensomotive, sensor, and emotionally-volitional sphere. Different speech defects have been disclosed. They are conditionally divided into three big groups. The first group comprises phonetic speech defects. They are revealed in mispronunciation of both separate sounds and their groups without other accompanying manifestations. The second group includes phonetic and phonemic defects. The child mispronounces speech sounds, does not distinguish them, and does not understand the acoustic and articulation difference between oppositional sounding. The third group deals with the general underdeveloped speech where all the speech components are deviated. The major attention of speech therapist is focused on overcoming phonetic defects and underdevelopment of phonemic speech aspects. It is recommended to actively add lessons of speech development. Non-formation of any of the stated operations causes the problems in writing and reading acquisition, dysgraphia and dyslexia. It is stated that the use of artistic and speech material on the lessons on sound pronunciation is a great advantage to both speech and intellectual child development. Three stages of sound pronunciation formation, the preparation of human speaking apparatus, the clarification of sound pronunciation, the reflection of sounds in words, phrasal speech have been singled out. The author gives the examples of the use of fiction and some methodological directions to overcome speech defects.
Keywords: special education, speech defect, artistic and speech activity, stages, speech correction